as one of the eight Cultural World Heritage site by UNESCO, Kathmandu Durbar
Square is a cluster of ancient temples, palaces, courtyards and streets that
date back to the 12th and 18th centuries. The square is known to be the
social, religious and urban focal point of the Capital City.
The Palace Complex was the royal Nepalese residence until the 19th century
and is the site of important ceremonies, such as the coronation of the
Nepalese monarch. The palace is decorated with elaborately-carved wooden
windows and panels an. It houses the King Tribhuwan Memorial Museum and the
||UNESCO World Heritage Site
||16th and 17th centuries
||Taleju Temple and Hanuman Dhoka
The temple is a famous Hindu and Jain religious site. The three-tiered
temple is the first to be erected with more than two roofs and raised on a
tall stepped platform. It is said that the mandir was built in the shape of
a yantra on the advice of the Taleju Goddess herself and that she appeared
to the King at the dedication ceremony disguised as a bee.
The simple yet beautiful temple was built by King Mahendra Malla and is
dedicated to the Hindu Lord Shiva in the form of Pashupati. The temple was
destroyed in a 1934 earthquake and rebuilt thereafter. The temple is a
memorial to its founder.
The Jagannath Temple is recognized as the finest of the group near Hanuman
Dhoka. Exquisite wood-carvings embellish the doors, windows and roof struts,
depicting a panoply of gods from the Hindu pantheon. Originally dedicated to
Vishnu the shrine was later re-dedicated to Jagannath.
The temple was built by Shivasimha Malla honoring the Mallas' family deity,
Degutale. It resembles Taleju's shrine but with a tower-like base in place
of the stepped platform. The worship of Degutale has its origins in a nature
cult, the images being pieces of rock which the Newaris set up and
Palace facade turns at right angles between the Degutale Temple and the Taleju Mandir. This way is created Hanuman Dhoka (Hanuman is a monkey god). Hanuman idol placed in the dhoka has been anointed with mustard oil and vermilion through the centuries.
Nasal Chowk takes its name from the little statue of the dancing Krishna in
the shrine on the east side of the court. In Malla times the podium in the
center of the court was used for dancing displays. The Shah kings chose to
be crowned in Nasal Chowk, a tradition which continues today.
As the occasional abode of the goddess Taleju, the court is barred to
visitors, though it is often possible to peep in through the gate and have a
look at the exquisite beauty of the palace. The Chowk is opened to Hindus
once a year when, on the ninth day of the Dasain Festival, hundreds of
buffaloes and goats are sacrificed to the goddess.
Bhandarkal is a botanical garden created by King Pratap Mall in the mid
17th century. With its diverse flora, Bhandarkal is a treat for nature
lovers and ecologists. The garden has been named after a seven-storied
palace that possesses a statue of the Sleeping Vishnu, Jalashayana Narayan.
Between the Lalitpur and Basantpur Towers can be seen the magnificently
carved façade of the three-storied Vilas Mandir, of a richness truly
befitting a Temple of Luxury.
Trailokya Mohan Narayan Temple
The three storied temple has the figure of Garuda placed in its front and
incarnations of Lord Vishnu within the temple. It was built by Prithvi
Bendra Malla in 1680.
The Shiva Temple in Darbar Square is a replica of the Jaisi Deval and was
built by Riddhi Lakshmi in 1690.
Shiv Parvati Temple
The long low building on the northern side of Durbar Square contains the
beautiful shrines of Shiva and Parvati. This somewhat unusual building is
believed to date from the time of Bahadur Shah. It is probably a
reconstruction, the stepped platform on which it stands being considerably
older than the temple itself.
Dedicated to Shiva the large three-storied Manju Deval on its unusually
high stepped base seems to dominate Durbar Square. It was built in 1692 by
the mother of Bhupatindra Malla of Bhaktapur. Inside the temple there is a
Shiva lingam. The small shikhara (temple tower in the North Indian style) at
the foot of the steps honors Kam Dev, Shiva's shakti.
The house of the Living Goddess, the Kumari Bahal looks like the monastery
that was constructed in 1757 by Jaya Prakash Malla. Inside it lives the
young girl who is selected to be the town's living goddess, until she
reaches her first puberty and reverts to being a normal mortal.
Kasthamandap or house of wood is the building which gave Kathmandu its
name. Legend narrates that the whole building is constructed from a Single
Sal tree. At first it was a community hall where local people gathered for
important ceremonies but later it was converted to a Temple of Gorakhnath.
The image of Gorakhnath glitters at the center of the building.
Ashok Binayak Shrine
The Ashok Binayak Shrine is the principle shrine of Lord Ganesha in the
Kathmandu Valley. The stone image of Lord Ganesha stands beneath a golden
replica of the Ashok tree which once shaded the shrine and eventually gave
it its name.
Simla Sattal is located at the southern end of the Kathmandu Durbar Square.
The residential style temple contains the Garuda Narayan figure, strange
looking effigies and a little shrine of Harikrishna.